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Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate in Detail

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binaire opties ebook Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate

الرسوم البيانية بالفوركس http://sensuousmuse.com/?tormozok=autorizzazione-consob-opzioni-binarie&2c3=79 autorizzazione consob opzioni binarie Ammonia: (NH3) is found in two forms, the very toxic ammonia – NH3 and the far less toxic ammonium NH4. They will both be present at the same time but the ratio depends on the pH of the aquarium water. Low pH means that there will be less ammonia and more ammonium and a high pH means a greater ratio of ammonia. In fish keeping terms a high pH normally means that the fish are going to be more sensitive to any ammonia spike.

best time frame forex trading Prednisone on line no prescription Nitrite: (NO2) is dangerous to fish regardless of the pH. Nitrite alters the fishes haemoglobin to methemoglobin and this prevents it from carrying oxygen around in the blood with very obvious health problems for the fish. Salt (sodium chloride) will block the uptake of nitrite when added in very small amounts to the aquarium water.


tastylia For the health of your fish, understanding Ammonia, Nitrite and nitrate is essential.

grafici trend opzioni binarie opzioni binarie online truffa Nitrate: (NO3) is normally the end product of the nitrogen cycle and for a long time was considered to be relatively harmless but although less toxic to fish than ammonia and nitrite it is still very much a toxin and its level in the aquarium environment has to be kept in check. Fish exposed to elevated levels of nitrate over a long period may become less fertile or even sterile and exhibit poor disease resistance.

ikili opsiyon işlemleri caiz mi It is inevitable that all three of these toxic compounds will find their way in to every aquarium. As aquarists we are told about the nitrogen cycle very early on and the usual explanation goes something like:

“Fish produce waste, bacteria breakdown that waste in to ammonia, then another group of bacteria breakdown that ammonia in to nitrite and yet another group of bacteria breakdown the nitrite in to harmless nitrate”.

This is of course a very simplified version about what actually happens and it isn’t completely accurate. The fish themselves secrete ammonia from their gills, more so after being fed, especially if they have been fed a diet which is high in protein. Any organic waste in the aquarium will also be broken down in to ammonia through a process called mineralisation.

http://tomhebert.com/?yana=alta-percentuale-di-vincita-binario-strategia-opzioni&69c=d1 alta percentuale di vincita binario strategia opzioni What really happens to the waste in an aquarium

http://avlo.be/index.php/component/content/?id=744:cross-grimbergen-en-zottegem-501 webinar opzioni binarie Stage one: binary options switzerland Aminization. Large protein molecules are broken down by the action of bacteria to form amino acids. Protein skimmers on marine aquaria remove the waste at this stage before it breaks down any further which greatly helps to preserve good water quality. Protein skimmers are almost ineffective in fresh water.
http://biologischewinkelutrecht.nl/component/k2/itemlist/user/613 binaire opties aandelen Stage two: handel mit binären optionen steuern Ammonification. Bacterial action converts organic nitrogen  in to ammonia NH3 and ammonium NH4 depending on the pH. Everything else which is left over from this stage is both chemically and biologically inert and it forms dust like particles which we refer to as mulm.
http://steinbierkeller.com/?veselo=trading-online-virtuale&9a2=ca trading online virtuale Stage three: purchase Tastylia no scams Nitrification. Chemolithotrophic bacteria use both ammonia and ammonium as a source of energy. During this process the ammonia and ammonium are oxidised using the free oxygen from the environment.
2(NH4) + O2 → 2(NH2OH) + 2(H)
(ammonium + oxygen becomes hydroxylamine + hydrogen gas). The free hydrogen is lost to atmosphere leaving just the hydroxylamine.

Part two of nitrification where the hydroxylamine becomes nitrite is as follows.

2NH2OH + 2(O2) → 2(H) + 2(H2O) + 2(NO2)
(hydroxylamine + oxygen becomes hydrogen gas + water + nitrite). Again this process requires a lot of free oxygen or it will be inhibited. Again the free hydrogen will be lost to atmosphere, the free oxygen will remain in the environment, the water will mix with the rest of the aquarium water and we will be left with nitrite in the water.

The next stage of nitrification is where the nitrite (NO2) is oxidised further and becomes nitrate (NO3).
2(NO2) + O2 → 2(NO3)
Nitrite + oxygen = nitrate. This is where the process normally comes to an end in the aquarium.

In a fully mature aquarium ammonia, ammonium and nitrite will remain at extremely low levels because these compounds will be broken down almost as they form. They should remain completely undetectable using aquarium test kits but the nitrate being at the end of the process will continue to build up. Nitrate was and often is thought to be quite harmless but if fish are exposed to elevated levels over a long period it will adversely affect their health. For most species aim for nitrate levels less than 25 mg/l and for sensitive species less than 10 mg/l.

إشارات لمسة واحدة الخيارات الثنائية When is an aquarium fully mature

So you have added the ammonia over a few weeks, you have seen the ammonia level rise and fall quickly followed by the rise and fall of nitrite and now both are undetectable and the tank has its first few fish in it. So your tank is now cycled and fully mature right?

WRONG. The tank is no where near fully mature. Let me explain.

The process of mineralisation mentioned earlier relies not only on bacteria but on a whole mini eco-system of bacteria, fungi protozoa and other single celled organism and the giants of this world the nematodes and roundworms all of which have an important part to play. For such an eco-system to grow and reach a balance takes time, possibly six months after the ammonia/nitrite levels dropped to zero. Until that balance is reached the tank shouldn’t be fully stocked and extra care is needed not to over load the still fragile system with careless feeding or poor tank hygiene.

About Andy Rapson

I've been interested in fish for about fifty years and I have kept many different species in that time. I have also worked in the fish trade running my own fish shop and I'm a Fishbase collaborator. I'm now mainly interested in fish husbandry, fish health, native marines and fish photography.

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