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Blue-spotted ribbon tail ray
Blue-spotted ribbon tail ray

Living Dangerously – Venom in the Marine Aquarium

رسائل الدكتوراه والماجستير in Marine Fish Feb 12, 2014 0 3,498 Views

broker für binäre optionen vergleich Venom is widely used within the animal kingdom for both predation and protection. Current estimates gauge the number of venomous fish species alone to be in excess of 1,200. Venom is the term given to a variety of toxins that can be administered by an animal. Venomous species differ from poisonous species in that they are equipped with a modified appendage that is used to administer the venom. This modified appendage, usually spines or teeth, is attached to a venom sac and it releases the venom during periods of stress, or undue threat.

opcje binarne konta demo There are a number of venomous fish species that are available for marine aquariums with the potency of the venom ranging from that of a bee sting through to being potentially fatal. Truly deadly species are not, under any circumstances, suitable for home aquariums and should be left to the realms of public aquaria, but there are a number of brightly coloured and often common venomous species that are widely available.

Scorpaenidae

web trading ch Members of the Scorpaenidae family are some of the most commonly occurring venomous species in aquaria, with the lionfish, also known as the devil or turkeyfish, being one of the most recognisable. Lionfish comprise the sub-family Pteroinae and originate from the Indo-Pacific regions but have spread across the globe and certain species are now considered an invasive threat across American coastlines and throughout the Caribbean. Whilst the number of species varies from 10-22 depending on the source, all lionfish species are aposematic, meaning that they display bright warning colours to deter potential predators. Lionfish have venom sacs attached to their dorsal, ventral and pelvic fin spines but despite the heavy weaponry, the spines are primarily used for defence, or for intra-species sparring.

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Lionfish care

binära optioner valuta Most aquarists tend to be stung when undertaking tank maintenance, or moving the fish. The inquisitive nature of lionfish means that individuals will often investigate any foreign objects in their tank including human hands. Lionfish possess the weakest sting relative to any other member of the Scorpaenidae family, but any sting should still be treated with the utmost caution.
The venom is comprised of proteins that will break down under heat, so any sting should be immersed under hot water (44oC) for approximately half an hour in order to denature the proteins. It is also advised that you seek medical advice as a precaution to prevent against secondary infection from any spine debris left in the wound.

http://fysiotopics.nl/old/wp-admin/ binäre optionen 60 sek strategie Lionfish are also prone to jumping if alarmed, so a tight fitting lid should be provided and it is important to remember that if a specimen does jump, not to pick it up with your bare hands. Nets can be used to transfer an individual between tanks, but care should be taken to prevent any entanglements, as lionfish will raise their fins to increase their size when they feel threatened. A net wider than the animal itself is recommended along with a soft weave to help prevent any fin spines become lodged, with a second net or alternative as a cover to prevent jumping. When working in the lionfish’s domain, elbow length gloves should be used, and a constant check should be kept to ensure the lionfish’s position is known at all times. Some aquarists have found that a piece of acrylic the same depth as the aquarium can be used as a ‘shield’, depending on the complexity of any live rock layout.

http://steinbierkeller.com/?veselo=perche-prima-nelle-opzion-ibnarie-c-era-il-90-ed-ora-l-80&955=a1 perche prima nelle opzion ibnarie c era il 90 ed ora l 80 Of all the lionfish species, some the most frequently encountered tend to be the larger volitans lionfish (Pterois volitans), or spot-fin lionfish (Pterois antennata) as well as the smaller fuzzy dwarf lionfish (Dendrochirus brachypterus). The volitans lionfish is likely to be the species that springs to mind when you think of a lionfish. They are also one of the hardier lionfish species, with aquarists previously using them to cycle marine tanks due to their tolerance of water parameter spikes. Lionfish do well in smaller setups too, with the fuzzy, or zebra lionfish making popular and hardy inhabitants. However, another dwarf species, the Fu Manchu lionfish, is regarded as difficult to keep, due to being poor shippers and notoriously picky eaters.

Keeping Lionfish

la migliore app per trading on line In terms of aquarium suitability, lionfish can attain a maximum size of 50cms in the case of the volitans lionfish, and live for up to 10 years so they are not a species to be taken lightly in terms of tank requirements. Species of dwarf lionfish will be fine in a tank around 120L, but to comfortably house an adult volitans, a tank of 400l should be provided with plenty of rocky outcrops and perching positions to replicate their natural habitat. Tank mates must be large, as any fish, or mobile invertebrates that could fit inside a lionfish’s mouth inevitably will find themselves in such a position. Lionfish are generally considered to be reef safe though, and will often accept a variety of live and frozen fare. Lionfish possess pharyngeal teeth so if pieces of food are too large, they will use these to soften and reposition the food before swallowing.

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Scorpionfish

www opzionibinarie cc Other Scorpaenidae species suitable for marine aquariums include scorpionfish such as the leaf scorpionfish (Taenianotus triacanthus), the weedy scorpionfish (Rhinopias aphanes) and the orange scorpionfish (Scorpaena brasiliensis). The scorpionfish venom is deemed more potent than that of the lionfish and they have shorter, thicker spines with larger venom glands. The stings are not fatal, although common symptoms include nausea, shortness of breath, fainting and changes in heart rate. Treatment and transportation are the same as with lionfish. Scorpionfish are more sedentary then lionfish, preferring to spend more time motionless on the substrate or rocks, often situated near macro algae. As a result, algae and other pests will grow on the fish, so to combat this, like lionfish; scorpionfish periodically shed their cuticle to remove them. Their sedentary lifestyle also makes them excellent ambush hunters. Their cryptic colouration, tassels and encrusting algae enables them to blend in with their surroundings, before inhaling unsuspecting prey by quickly opening their mouth and creating a vacuum. However, their encrusting algae and tassels, as well as attracting prey, also bring unwanted attention from other species such as larger wrasse, butterflyfish and surgeonfish, confusing them for food. Consequently, care must be taken when looking at potential tank mates, with smaller fish and invertebrates likely to end up as food. A minimum tank size of 120L is required.

binära optioner på avanza Waspfish and leaffish are also commonly encountered venomous fish within the aquarium trade, attaining similar sizes to scorpionfish and having the same requirements.

Other venemous species

opzioni binarie in bitcoin There are other marine fish families with venomous species too. Stingrays such as the Blue-spotted ribbon tail ray (Taeniura lymma) from the Dasyatidae family are larger examples of venomous marine species. Stingrays envenomate their victims using their tail spine, although this is predominantly used in defence. As with the stings from Scorpaenidae species, the application of hot water will aid in denaturing the proteins present in the venom, although medical attention should still be sought. Rays such as the blue-spotted ribbon tail ray will attain sizes in excess of 2 feet in length and should be housed accordingly, with the footprint of the tank more important that the height. Care should also be taken when transporting the fish to ensure its tail does not become entangled within a net.

köpa Sildenafil Citrate flashback 2015 The coral catfish, or striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus) is another venomous species available for aquaria. A member of the Plotosidae family hailing from the tropical waters of the Mediterranean, Indian and Pacific, coral catfish have sharp venomous spines on their dorsal and pectoral fins. The venom is protein based and, similar to those species described previously, soaking a sting wound in hot water can help denature the protein and alleviate the pain. The pain is excruciating, with victims often losing consciousness as a result of a sting, and fatalities have been recorded. As juveniles, coral catfish will aggregate in schools of up to 100 fish, whilst adults tend to shoal in much smaller numbers. In a private aquarium, shoals with a minimum of 5 individuals are recommended, and with adult specimens attaining a foot in length, this is a species for the serious aquarist only.

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ما الذي يجب علي بيعه لأربح المال Several types of rabbitfish, from the siganidae family, that possess venomous spines on their dorsal fins may be offered for aquariums. Rabbitfish get their name from their small rabbit like mouths. Whilst their venom is not as potent as that of the coral catfish, or members of the Scorpaenidae family, it can still deliver a painful sting. Species commonly available within the aquaria trade include the foxface rabbitfish (Siganus vulpinus), decorated rabbitfish (Siganus puellus) and the blue spotted rabbitfish (Siganus corallines). They are a peaceful and active diurnal species, making them ideal for larger reef set-ups over 180L, although they may be aggressive with conspecifics.

Species from the Acanthuridae family such as the palette surgeonfish (Paracanthurus hepatus), the sohal tang (Acanthurus sohal) are perceived to have venom glands attached to their spines on their caudal peduncle. During periods of perceived threat, the fish will hold their spines erect and thrash their tail to inflict deep gashes on attackers, and there are a number of reports of aquarists being stung by them.

One to avoid

Species that should not be considered for the home aquarium due to their potentially fatal venomous capabilities include the stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa), another member of the Scorpaenidae family that is regarded as the one of the world’s most venomous fish. Like the scorpionfish, the stonefish have dorsal spines, each with two venom sacs attached. The effects of its venom can induce paralysis, tissue necrosis and, depending on the dose – death.

Marine invertebrates including species of blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena sp) and cone shell, particularly the geographic cone shell (Conus geographus), also harbour a complex mix of life threatening toxins. The bite of the blue-ringed octopus and the modified harpoon like radula of the cone shell deliver the venom, and both these species have been known to cause fatalities in humans. At present, no antivenom has been developed for the either creature and the geographic cone shell is sometimes known as the “cigarette snail” a reference to the fact the victim will have only enough time to smoke a cigarette before succumbing to the effects of the venom.

Like all envenomating species, great care must be taken when interacting with a specimen, whether it’s during feeding, handling, or tank maintenance, to avoid getting stung. If you are unfortunate, or careless enough to be stung, hot water will be an aid to treatment, but it is always advisable to seek medical assistance quickly to avoid complications, or simply to prevent secondary infections. Despite the risks, with adequate research and knowledge, there are a variety of venomous marine species that will make great and colourful additions to any marine aquarium.

About Chris Sergeant

I currently work in the Conservation Biology field, having previously worked within both public and private aquatics facilities. I hold degrees in Marine Biology and Coastal and Marine Resource Management and have spent numerous hours diving and snorkelling across the world for both work and pleasure. I also keep a variety of tropical and marine species.

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