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Water hardness and fish keeping

Köp Strattera på nätet Gällivare in Advice Aug 11, 2013 0 1,738 Views

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http://blog.halobiz.co.nz/?chebyrek=come-funziona-opzione-binarie&3c7=5e come funziona opzione binarie Water hardness is a measure of the quantity of divalent ions, mainly calcium and magnesium and, to a lesser degree, iron and selenium. There are two types of water hardness, temporary hardness and permanent  hardness. Temporary hardness is often called carbonate hardness or alkalinity and it can easily be removed by boiling the water, it is this type of hardness which firs up kettles in areas of high hardness. Permanent hardness is far more stable and cannot be so easily removed.

binäre optionen vorhersagen binary options no deposit bonus 2015 Temporary hardness: Is caused by the presence of hydrogen-carbonates (bicarbonates) most commonly of calcium or magnesium. Calcium bicarbonate Ca(HCO3)2 and magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 will both breakdown when heated Mg(HCO3)2  → CO2 + H2O + MgCO3 the carbon dioxide CO2 dissipates to atmosphere and the magnesium carbonate precipitates out to form a solid which builds up on the heating elements in kettles in areas with a high levels of bicarbonates in the water, leaving just more water as a by-product, a similar thing happens with all bicarbonates.

opzioni binarie importo minimo Köp Strattera online-Luleå (Kallax) Permanent hardness: Is caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium salts such as calcium and magnesium sulphate. Unlike temporary hardness his type of hardness is unaffected by temperature.

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binary options trading When testing the waters hardness with an aquarium test kit both temporary and permanent hardness combined make the result with this in mind you can see why it is often written that it is impossible for the temporary hardness to be greater than the total hardness. But when measuring the KH (carbonate hardness) it is the carbonates which are measured and so other compounds such as bicarbonate of soda are counted which are ignored when testing the over all hardness of the water. In short this means that the carbonate hardness CAN be greater than the overall hardness.

piattaforme demo opzioni binarie Aquarium water hardness test kits come in two forms, one measures the GH which is the total hardness or the total calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in the water. The other Measures KH or carbonate hardness and this includes all carbonates and bicarbonates not just those of calcium and magnesium.

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trading online binario siti http://sensuousmuse.com/?tormozok=forum-su-autopzioni-binarie&19f=c1 forum su autopzioni binarie Increasing hardness: The old method which is still widely recommended by some is to add a calcareous (calcium containing) material such as oyster shells to the filter, but this isn’t really satisfactory for a number of reasons. Firstly in is uncontrollable, it would be very difficult to obtain a specific degree of hardness this way, secondly any shells, coral sand or tuffa rock will quite quickly grow a bio-film over its surface and this will impede its ability to dissolve, thirdly the rate at which the material enters the solution is very slow which means when water changes are made the hardness will fluctuate considerably. It is far better to use an additive which can be added to the water when water changes are carried out, this allows precise amounts of additive to be used ensuring that the new water is the same hardness as the old water and so avoiding fluctuations. This applies equally to GH and KH.

binary option robot erfahrung http://ayto-daganzo.org/?kefir=opzioni-binarie-con-in-regalo-bonus-di-apertura&37d=f0 opzioni binarie con in regalo bonus di apertura Lowering the waters hardness: A reverse osmosis unit will remove almost all dissolved solids from tap water leaving water which is 99.9% pure – too pure in fact for fish to live in. R/O water can be re-mineralised and there are many products available to do this. This means that however hard your tap water is you can turn it in to r/o water and then re-mineralise

it to meet your exact requirements. Or you can simply use r/o water to dilute your tap water in order to lower the hardness.

Rainwater can be used in exactly the same way as r/o water because rain water if properly collected has zero hardness.

köpa Viagra nätet Ion exchange resin: Will remove both calcium and magnesium ions from the water but it will replace those ions with sodium ions. This means that their will be little if any difference in the level of total dissolved solids in the water and although the water will be soft when tested with a hardness testing kit it may still be unsuitable for delicate fish which require soft water because in nature soft water is invariably low in all dissolved minerals.

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Picture-113[sws_pullquote_right] Fish which come from more extreme environments like discus or Rift valley cichlids will only really thrive in water where special consideration has been given to the waters hardness. [/sws_pullquote_right]







GH is often overlooked as being relatively unimportant in fish keeping. But these dissolved salts particularly calcium are biologically important for the fish for things like ossification (bone formation), blood clotting, osmoregulation because calcium has a direct effect on the fish’ gill permeability and affects the fish’s uptake of sodium and chloride which are vital for the fish to be able to maintain an osmotic balance. Calcium is also important for a whole range of other biological processes.

Calcium is taken directly from the water via the gills but magnesium is mostly taken as

a trace element from food although it can be taken from the water too. These salts have to be present in the right amount or mineral deficiency will occur and the fish will not be able to function properly.

Most tap water in the UK has enough of these salts to satisfy the needs of most species of fish but some adjustment may be needed for some species. Regular partial water changes if carried out properly will replenish these salts so there should never be a shortfall of supply in the aquarium environment of well maintained tanks.

About Andy Rapson

I've been interested in fish for about fifty years and I have kept many different species in that time. I have also worked in the fish trade running my own fish shop and I'm a Fishbase collaborator. I'm now mainly interested in fish husbandry, fish health, native marines and fish photography.

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